The Berlin Film Festival, which prides itself on promoting liberal values and tolerance, has been shaken by research confirming that its first director lied about having opposed the Nazi regime and was an “eager paramilitary man” who worked with Joseph Goebbels.

Alfred Bauer, who ran the Berlinale from its launch in 1951 until 1976, was a key adviser to the Reichsfilmintendanz, the steering body of Nazi film policy, a study by the Leibniz Institute for Contemporary History revealed. It also said he was a member of the Nazi party, the Sturmabteilung (SA) paramilitary wing known as Stormtroopers, the National Socialist German Student Union and the National Socialist Lawyers’ Association.

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