In 2001, when the Internet was so new that many people didn’t have it in their homes yet, the Society for Human Resource Management published an article titled “Making Telecommuting Work.” They warned that the problem wasn’t the technology.

“The biggest barrier to telework is still resistance by middle management,” the article stated. “If Big Bob looks out over his Dilbertville and doesn’t see cubicles filled with busy workers, he’s going to wonder and feel uncomfortable about what he’s paying the Little Bobs to do.”